نوشته‌ها

images-jpg1212

چگونه مقاله به زبان انگلیسی بنویسیم

چگونه مقاله به زبان انگلیسی بنویسیم

 

ساختار کلی پاراگراف

هر مقاله ای عنوانی دارد که خواننده ها می دانند کجا آن را پیدا کنند.  مسلما در بالای صفحه ی اول مقاله است. خواننده ها میدانند که بعد از عنوان چکیده ی مقاله

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

می آید و آنها می دانند که ارجاعات در آخر مقاله است.

همانطور که خواننده ها انتظار خاصی از سراسر مقاله دارند، آنها همچنین از ساختار یک جمله، پاراگراف  نیز انتظاراتی دارند. این انتظارات مانند انتظار مکان چکیده و عنوان، صریح و دقیق نیستند. با این وجود آنها به نحوه ی دریافت اطلاعات از یک بخش یا پاراگراف یا جمله، پایه ریزی شده اند.

هر پاراگراف کوچک شده ی یک مقاله هست. هر پارگراف عنوان خودش را دارد (جمله ی اصلی topic sentence). جملات میانی مانند بخشهای  مقاله هستند و جمله ی آخر مانند نتیجه گیری است.

یک پاراگراف با ساختار خوب(well-structured)  که در قسمت اول یک بخش از مقاله نیست ولی در هر جای دیگه ی آن بخش می تواند باشد معمولا دارای ساختار زیر است:

  1. جمله ی اصلی که به خواننده می گوید پاراگراف  درباره ی چه موضوعی است و به طریقی با پاراگراف قبلی در ارتباط است.
  2. از یک تا هشت جمله ی منطقی تشکیل شده است که عنوان را گسترش می دهد.
  3. یک جمله ی نتیجه گیری که معمولا به جمله ی اول یا پارگراف بعدی بر می گردد.

سه عنصر این ساختار با جزئیات در درسهای بعد مورد مورد توجه قرار خواهد گرفت. شما باید به خواننده ها نشان دهید چگونه پارگراف  نوشته شده با آنچه قبل و بعد می آید در ارتباط است. شما لازم است که اطلاعات را برای خواننده سازماندهی کنید بجای اینکه خواننده اطلاعاتی که شما به او می دهید را سازماندهی کند. فقط یک ایده خاص در هر جمله  و فقط یک ایده ی عمومی در یک  پاراگراف باید معرفی شود.

 

نگارش خوب به انتظار تو از خواننده درباره ی نقشی که آنها باید بازی کنند و تلاشی که آنها باید کنند، بستگی دارد. که از فرهنگی به فرهنگ دیگر متفاوت است.  کانگ جون مو رئیس دانشکده ی زبانهای خارجی موسسه ی تکنولوژی شانگهای بیان می کند:

 فاکتورهای اساسی، فصاحت و بلاغت در شرق، خواننده -مسئول است. بدین معنی که، خواننده مسئول است، تمام ارتباطهای ما بین جملات، پاراگراف ها و همه ی ایده های پنهان نویسنده را پیدا کند. و این موضوع کاملا با نویسنده-مسئول بودن در فصیح و بلیغ بودن متون انگلیسی متمایز است. در انگلیسی فرض بر این است که خواننده با تلاش کمتر و در نتیجه سریعتر مطالب را درک کند.

نویسنده، در نگارشهای های اساسی و تکنیکی  انگلیسی،  چنان می نویسد که تلاش خواننده را به کمترین مقدار بهینه کند. نویسنده صد درصد مسئول درک متلب توسط خواننده است. نگارش خواننده-محور، یعنی افراد زیادی مقاله تو را تحسین کرده و در نتیجه به مقاله ی شما بیشتر ارجاع خواهند داد. سعی کنید متن زیر را بخوانید:

NON-NATIVE SPEAKERSTYPICALLYSAYTHATENGLISHISASIMPLE LANGUAGE BECAUSE IT FAVORS SHORT CLEAR SENTENCES SuCh NoN-nAtiVespEAkeRSthEn saythattheirownlanguageisnotlikeEnglishbecauseitfavorslongcomplex sentences

خواندن متن بالا سخت است. چون به شکلی که شما معمولا یک متن را می بینید نیست. به همین ترتیب خواندن متن شما توسط یک شخص انگیسی زبان سخت است، اگر دارای ساختار ضعیف، گنگ و زائد باشد. نوشته ی ضعیف هزینه ی اضافی است. وقتی خواننده، زمان و انرژی زیادی را برای درک مقاله تان تلف می کند، به همان اندازه زمان و انرژی برای انجام کارهای خودش را از دست می دهد.

برای خوب نوشتن شما باید بدانید که خواننده چگونه می خواند.


امروزه خواندن بیشتر روی صفحه ی مانیتور انجام میگیرد تا کاغذ.  اغلب اوقات ما می خواهیم سریع به اطلاعات دسترسی پیدا کنیم.  بخصوص زمانی که در اینترنت هستیم تمایل داریم اسکن (scan) بکنیم. اسکن کردن به این معنی است که  کلمات را به صورت منفرد نخوانیم بلکه سه یا چهار کلمه را در یک لحظه بخوانیم. یا بپریم! فاصله ای (در واحد جملات یا کلمات ) که ما از روی آنها می پریم وابسته به ارزشی است که آنها در جستجوی اطلاعاتمان دارند. اگر آنها هیچ ارزشی نداشته باشند  تمایل داریم که آنها را نخوانیم.

اگر هنگام مطالعه با اسکن جملات از چپ به راست، همچنان اطلاعات با ارزشی نیافتیم  آنها را به صورت عمودی مرور می کنیم (scroll) بنابراین  به صورت عمودی می خوانیم تا افقی تا جایی که  اطللاعات با ارزشی را پیدا کنیم.

در یک مقاله ای از روزنامه ی انگلیسی زبان گاردین، Guardian  پرفسور ترسی سیلی استاد انگلیسی دانشگاه سانفرانسیسکو، نوشته است: بعد از یک بررسی با کمک دانشجویانش متوجه شده است که اغلب دانشجویان نمی توانند بیش از سی دقیقه روی موضوعی متمرکز شوند. تکنولوژی های جدید خواندن کند را از ما گرفته اند. در یک ایمیلی خانم پرفسور به من نوشته بود که مقالات نیاز دارند که موضوع را سریعتر قابل درک سازند و اینکه امروزه  خوب نوشتن در حفظ علاقه ی خواننده بسیار مهم است.

همان مقاله ی گاردین همچنین دو طرح تحقیقی از موسسه ی پوینتر و آنالیزهای جاکوب نیلسون (یک متخصص دانمارکی وب )  را نقل می کند که نتایج تحققیاتشان نشان می دهد فقط نصف کسانی که شروع به خواندن مقاله می کنند آن را کاملا می خوانند. در مورد مقالات اینترنتی این رقم فقط یک پنجم است.

به عنوان یک نویسنده، موضوع بیان شده خیلی مهم است. هیچ کس هیچگونه تکلیفی برای خواندن متن تو ندارد. اگر خواننده ها آن را مفید، مهم و یا جالب ندانند، آنها نمی خوانند. بنابراین یافته های تو فراموش می شوند.

هر کلمه ای که تو می نویسی باید کاملا قابل فهم توسط خواننده باشد. سبک باید خاص، موکد و دقیق باشد. همه چیز باید مرتبط باشند. خواننده ها معمولا تنبل هستند و عجله می کنند. آنها لازم دارند همه چیز را بلافاصله درک کنند.   برای درک مطلب، اجازه ندهید  خواننده تا آخر جمله یا پاراگراف منتظر بماند. بجای آن چنان زنجیر وار از کلمات استفاده کن که هر حلقه ی زنجیر جمله را واضحتر کند. همچنین هر جمله با جمله ی بعدی زنجیر ی تشکیل بدهد بطوریکه خواننده گام به گام به طرف نتایج نویسنده هدایت شود.


فصل چهارم قواعد جمله ها و پاراگراف ها

چرا این فصل مهم است یکی از دلایل مهم و مشترک خیلی از داوران در رد مقاله، ضعف خوانایی آن است.

این فصل راههای گوناگون افزایش خوانایی و نحوه ی نوشتن خواننده-محور و ۱۰۰٪   واضح برای خواننده  را معرفی می کند. شما یاد خوهید گرفت که خوانندها انتظار دارند اطلاعات اساسی متن  را  کجا پیدا کنند.  یاد خواهید گرفت که چگونه از این اطلاعات برای افزایش تاثیر نوشته هایتان استفاده کنید.

نتیجه خوانایی با کلاس نوشته هایتان خواهد بود که خواننده ها تنها با یک بار خواندن کل موضوع را درک خواهند کرد. این موضوع در رد یا قبولی مقاله های شما نقش اساسی را ایفا می کند. هر چیزی که دو بار برای فهمیدن خوانده شود، شانس قبولی مقاله را کاهش می دهد.

چه چیزی متخصصان می گویند

ساده بودن از پیچیده بودن سخت است

جان روسکین در کتاب English art critic and social thinker

بشر ماشین نیست که هر تیپ اطلاعاتی رو بخواد پردازش کنه.

بروچ کوپر “Writing Technical Reports”


۳٫۱۸ خلاصه

شما هیچ یک از پیچیدگیهای ذهنتان را با جدا کردن  جمله طولانی به جملات کوتاهتر از دست نخواهید داد. اطلاعات در هر دو حالت یکسان هستند. کاری  که شما انجام داده اید این است که فهمیدن مفاهیم را با تقسیم کردن جملات ساده تر کرده اید.

برای افزایش خوانایی

  • مابین فاعل و فعل بیش از ۸ تا ۱۰ کلمه فاصله نیندازید.
  • به جمله واره ی اصلی در صورتی که از ۱۵ تا ۲۰ کلمه تشکیل شده باشد اطلاعات دیگری اضافه نکنید.
  • جملات نباید بیش از ۳۰ کلمه داشته باشند و جملاتی به طول ۳۰-کلمه نباید بیش از دو یا سه بار در مقاله دیده شوند.
  • حتما تقسیم به جملات جدید را در صورتی که یکی از کلمات و حروف  and, which, a link word,  the -ing form, in order to دیده شوند، مد نظر قرار دهید.
  • استفاده از نقطه جمله (period) را ماکزیمم کنید و از کمترین تعداد ممکن برای ویرگول و سمیکالن و پرانتز استفاده کنید.
  • از اینکه کلمات اساسی تکرار شوند احساس نگرانی نکنید. اگر تقسیم جمله ی طولانی به معنای تکرار کلمات اساسی است، مشکلی وجود ندارد کلمات اساسی را تکرار کنید. در حقیقت تکرار باعث شفافیت نوشته هایتان می شود.

فصل سوم درس هیجدهم


۳٫۱۷ عبارتها در پرانتزها

عبارات در پرانتزها می تواند موجب افزایش طول جمله شود. پارانتزها بهتر است تنها زمانی استفاده شوند که می خواهیم مثالی را توضیح دهیم.

 Several members of the European Union (e.g. Spain, France and German) have successfully managed to reduce their top tax threshold from 42 to 38%

در جمله بالا اطلاعات، عبارات داخل پرانتز، منطق جاری جمله را خراب نمی کند و فضای بیشتری را نیز اشغال نمی کن.

نباید برای توضیحات و مثالهایی که لیست نیستند از پرانتز استفاده کرد.

Using automatic translation software (e.g. Google Translate, Babelfish, and Systran) can considerably ease the work of researchers when they need to translate documents thus saving them money (for example the fee they might have otherwise had to pay to a professional translator) and increasing the amount of time they have to spend in the laboratory rather than at the PC

جمله ی ویرایش شده

Using automatic translation software (e.g. Google Translate, Babelfish, and Systran) can considerably ease the work of researchers when they need to translate documents. Such software saves them money, for example the fee they might have otherwise had to pay to a professional translator. It also increases the amount of time they have to spend in the laboratory rather than at the PC

در جمله بالا پرانتز اول مفید است ولی پرانتز دوم نه تنها جمله را طولانی تر کرده است بلکه جریان جمله را نیز عوض کرده است.

فصل سوم درس هفدهم


۳٫۱۶ نقطه ویرگول در لیستها

تنها جایی که سمیکالن به درد می خورد، زمانی است که لیستهای کوچک را طبقه بندی می کنید تا نشان دهید که چگونه هر عنصر لیست با عناصر دیگر در ارتباط است. برای مثال در جملات زیر، جمله S2 واضحتر از جمله ی S1 است.

 S1. *The partners in the various projects are A, B and C, P and Q, X and Y and Z

S2. The partners in the various projects are A, B and C; P and Q; X; and Y and Z

در جمله S2 کاملا مشخص است که چهار گروه از شریکان وجود دارد:

  1. A, B,C
  2. P, Q
  3. X
  4. Y, Z

اما اگر لیست مانند لیست زیر طولانی باشد. بهتر است به جملات کوچک تقسیم بشود.

Our system is based on four components: it has many data files (the weather, people, places, etc.); it has procedures which it tries to use to combine these files by working out how to respond to certain types or patterns of questions (this entails the user knowing what types of questions it can answer); it has a form to understand the questions posed in a natural language (so the user may need to know English) which it then translates into one of the types of questions it knows how to answer; finally, it has a very powerful display module, which it uses to show the answers, using, graphs, maps, histograms etc

جمله ویرایش شده،

Our system is based on four components. Firstly, it has many data files, for example the weather, people, and places. Secondly, it has procedures which it tries to use to combine these files by working out how to respond to certain types or patterns of questions and this entails the user knowing what types of questions it can answer. Thirdly, it has a form to understand the questions posed in a natural language, which means the user needs to know English. It then translates the natural language into one of the types of questions it knows how to answer. Finally, it has a very powerful display module, which it uses to show the answers. These answers are shown using graphs, maps, histograms etc

هر چند جمله ی ویرایش شده طولانی تر از جمله ی اولیه است ولی به دلایل زیر واضحتر و بهتر است.

  • از شش جمله تشکیل شده است و نقطه بجای سمیکالونها استفاده شده است.
  • چهار مولفه ی جمله به وضوح با کلماتی مانند Firstly و Secondly و غیره جدا شده اند.
  • براکتها حذف شده اند.

فصل سوم درس شانزدهم


۳٫۱۵ نقطه ویرگول semicolon ;

سمیکالونها (;) در انگلیسی مدرن به صورت رایج استفاده نمی شوند. اگر می خواهید از سیمیکولن برای معرفی  ایده ها و یا اطلاعات اضافی استفاده کنید، حتما به استفاده ی نقطه بجای آن بیاندیشید.

By 1066 English, or Old English as it is known, was firmly established; it was a logical language and was also reasonably phonetic. This situation changed dramatically when England was invaded by the Normans in 1066; in fact, for the next 250 years French became the official language, and when English did come to be written again it was a terrible concoction of Anglo-Saxon, Latin and French

نویسنده ی خلاصه ی بالا، برای نشان دادن اینکه دو قسمت جمله بسط یک قسمت دیگر است، از سمیکولن استفاده کرده است. اگرچه این نوع استفاده صحیح است ولی امروزه غیر ضروری است. بنابراین در جمله ی بالا سمیکالونها به سادگی با نقطه می توانند عوض شوند بدون اینکه تغییری در معنای جمله ایجاد کنند.

زمانی که  شما هنگام مطالعه با یک نقطه مواجه می شوید مغزتان به صورت ناخودآگاه مکث خواهد کرد که معادل مکث و سپس تنفس در زمان صحبت کردن است.  سمیکولن چنین مکثی را ایجاد نکرده در نتیجه باعث خواندن کل جمله و ایجاد یک نوع خستگی در مغز خواهد شد. همچنین سیمیکولن با طولانی تر کردن جمله، نوعی خستگی اضافی  را در چشمهانیز به همراه می آورد.

بعضی از نویسندگان از کولن :(colon) به همان ترتیب سمیکولن استفاده می کنند. بنابراین اگر استفاده از کولن هم باعث طولانی تر شدن جمله شود بهتر است از نقطه استفاده کرده و جمله ی جدید شروع شود.

به جملات زیر توجه کنید:

S1. Old English had two distinct advantages over Modern English: it had a regular spelling system and was phonetic

S2. Old English, which is the language spoken in most parts of England over 1,000 years, was a relatively pure language (the influence of Latin had not been particularly strong at this point, and the French influence as a result of the Norman Conquest was yet to be felt) and had two distinct advantages over Modern English: it had a regular spelling system and the majority of words were completely phonetic

S3. Old English was the language spoken in most parts of England over 1,000 years. It was a relatively pure language since the influence of Latin had not been particularly strong at this point, and the French influence as a result of the Norman Conquest was yet to be felt. It had two distinct advantages over Modern English: it had a regular spelling system and the majority of words were completely phonetic

در جمله ی S1 استفاده از کاما صحیح است. زیرا طول جمله بیش از بیست کلمه نیست. ولی جمله ی S2 خیلی طولانی است و باید به صورت جمله ی S3 بازنویسی شود.

 

فصل سوم درس پانزدهم


۳٫۱۴ فزونی استفاده از کاما

زمانی که کاماها در یک فهرست استفاده شوند، آنها مفیدند. برای مثال:

Many European countries are now part of the European union, these include France, German, Italy, Portugal, Spain,

با این وجود، استفاده کاماها برای جداسازی جمله واره های مختلف، در یک جمله، باعث می شود، خواننده، تفکرش را دایما تنظیم کند. همچنین فزونی کاماها باعث طولانی شدن جمله می شود. به مثال زیر توجه کنید:

As a preliminary study, in an attempt to establish a relationship between document length and level of bureaucracy, we analyzed the length of 50 European Union documents, written in seven of the official languages of the EU, to confirm whether documents, such as reports regarding legislative and administrative issues, vary substantially in length from one language to another, and whether this could be related, in some way, to the length of time typically needed to carry out daily administrative tasks in those countries (e.g. withdrawing money from a bank account, setting up bill payments with utility providers, understanding the clauses of an insurance contract). The results showed that

در جمله بالا، استفاده ی مکرر از کاما، نشان دهنده ی تنبلی  نویسنده است. نویسنده به سادگی جمله ای را نوشته و دایما اطلاعات جدید را به جمله اضافه کرده است، بدون اینکه توجه کند خواننده چونه مطالب را درک خواهد کرد. همچنین، این نوع نوشتن نشان می دهد که نویسنده حتی در ذهن خویش هم در مورد موضوع شفاف نیست. ویرایش این جمله به شکل زیر می تواند باشد.

Our aim was to see if there is a direct relationship between the length of documents produced in a country, and the length it takes to do simple bureaucratic tasks in that country. Our hypothesis was: the longer document, the greater the level of bureaucracy.

In our preliminary study we analyzed translations from English into seven of the official languages of the European Union. We chose 50 documents, mostly regarding legislative and administrative issues. We then looked at the length of time typically needed to carry out daily administrative tasks in those countries. The tasks we selected were withdrawing money from a bank account, setting up bill payments with utility providers, and understanding the clauses of an insurance contract. The results showed that

توجه کنید که در جمله ویرایش شده:

  1. کلمات زیادی نسبت به جمله ی اولیه استفاده شده است ولی خواندن و درک مطالب را به صورت قابل ملاحظه ای ساده کرده است.
  2. ترتیب جمله واره های فرعی عوض شده اند و در یک ترتیب منطقی به صورت جمله جدا شده اند.
  3. اطلاعات به دو پاراگراف تقسیم شده اند. پاراگراف اول دلایل را توضیح می دهد و پارگراف دوم تحقیقات انجام شده  را نشان می دهد.  این نوع تقسیم بندی ارتباط بین ایده ها را واضحتر ساخته است.

همچنین مثل جمله ی زیر استفاده از کاماها  برای یک سری  عبارات که همدیگر را توصیف می کنند، می تواند خطرناک باشد.

 S1. In particular, the base peak is characteristic of the fragmentation of dehydroabietic acid, the main degradation marker formed by aromatization of abietadienic acids, the major constituents of pine resins

 ابتدا خواننده با خواندن S1 احساس می کند که peak با یک سری عباراتی که با کاما جدا شده اند، مشخص می شود. ولی با خواندن بیشتر متوجه می شویم که در حقیقت  the main degradation marker  عنصر دومی از یک سری عبارات نیست. بنابراین S1 نیازمند تلاش موشکافانه تری برای درک است و بهتر است به شکل S2 اصلاح شود.

S2. The base peak is characteristic of the fragmentation of dehydroabietic acid. This fragmentation is the main degradation marker formed by aromatization of abietadienic acids, which are the major constituents of pine resins

فصل سوم درس چهاردهم



اغلب، لازم است برای پذیرفتن فرایند خاص یا قسمتهایی از تحقیق دلایلی را توضیح دهیم. برای این منظور، نویسندگان معمولا ازعباراتی مانند

in order to، with the purpose of، with the aim to، in an attempt to

استفاده می کنند. بیان دلایل با استفاده از عبارت بالا و کلمات کم، خوب است. برای مثال

In order to test our hypothesis, we sampled a random selection of documents

اما اگر در جمله ای، دلیل بیش از پانزده کلمه است، احتمالا باید جمله را بشکنید.

جمله ی اولیه

Our readability index is based on a series of factors – length of sentences and paragraphs, use of headings, amount of white space, use of formatting (bold, italics, font size etc.) – in order to provide writers with some metrics for judging how much readers are likely to understand the writers’ documents

جمله ی ویرایش شده

We wanted to provide writers with some metrics for judging how much readers are likely to understand the writers’ documents. We thus produced a readability index based on a series of factors – length of sentences and paragraphs, use of headings, amount of white space, and use of formatting (bold, italics, font size etcمقاله به زبان انگلیسی

جمله ی اولیه

In order to establish a relationship between document length and level of bureaucracy and to confirm whether documents, such as reports regarding legislative and administrative issues, vary substantially in length from one language to another, we conducted an analysis of A, B and C

جمله ی ویرایش شده ۱

We conducted an analysis of A, B and C. The aim of the analysis was to establish a relationship between document length and level of bureaucracy and to confirm whether documents, such as reports regarding legislative and administrative issues, vary substantially in length from one language to another

جمله ی ویرایش شده ۲

We wanted to establish a relationship between document length and level of bureaucracy and to confirm whether documents, such as reports regarding legislative and administrative issues, vary substantially in length from one language to another. To do this, we conducted an analysis of A, B and C

در ویرایش های بیان شده دو تکنیک به کار برده شده است.

  1. در ابتدا می گوییم چه چیزی انجام شد و سپس توضیح می دهیم چرا آن چیز انجام شد.
  2. ابتدا دلیل را می گوییم و سپس درباره ی آنچه انجام می شود، توضیح می دهیم.

حالت اول معمولا برای خواننده خیلی راحت است. چرا که به خواننده کمک می کند تا دلیل را در متن پیدا کند.

فصل سوم درس سیزدهم

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

روش دیگری که نویسندگان معمولا عبارات را با یکدیگر پیوند می دهند استفاده از فعل به همراه ing- است. اگر وجود ing- فرم فعل باعث افزایش طول جمله است، می توانید از فرم دیگر فعل برای کوتاهتر کردن جمله استفاده کنید. 

Using automatic translation software (e.g. Google Translate, Babelfish, and Systran) can considerably ease the work of researchers when they need to translate documents thus saving them money (for example the fee they might have otherwise had to pay to a professional translator) and increasing the amount of time they have to spend in the laboratory rather than at the PC

جمله ی ویرایش شده:مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

Using automatic translation software (e.g. Google Translate, Babelfish, and Systran) can considerably ease the work of researchers when they need to translate documents. Such software  saves them money, for example the fee they might have otherwise had to pay to a professional translator. It also increases the amount of time they have to spend in the laboratory rather than at the PC

در جمله ی بالا ing- فرم در دو مرحله اصلاح شده است. در ابتدا فاعل(software) تکرار شده و سپس ing- فرم به شکل حال ساده تغییر پیدا کرده است.  

در جمله زیر ing- فرم بجای جمله واره ی مرتبط به کار برده شده است در این جمله نویسنده می توانست بجای ing- فرم از which indicates استفاده کند. در چنین حالتی شما می توانید جمله را بلافاصله قبل از ing- فرم بشکنید و در جمله ی جدید از This استفاده کنید.مقاله به زبان انگلیسی

As can be seen from Table 1, the concentrations were far higher than expected especially in the first set of samples, indicating that one cause of pollution was

جمله ی ویرایش شده:

As can be seen from Table 1, the concentrations were far higher than expected especially in the first set of samples. This indicates that one cause of pollution was

این مطالب از سایت های مختلف جهت استفاده شما عزیزان جمع آوری شده است، امیدوارم مفید باشد.

منبع: http://najormagaleyazakh.blogfa.com/

ma9ala

دوازده گام پاراگراف نویسی(به زبان انگلیسی)

 دوازده گام پاراگراف نویسی(به زبان انگلیسی)


INTRODUCTION


For what useful purposes can students write in English? To give the students a sense of purpose in their writing , a distinction ought to be made among types of writing activities the students are involved in . In its simple form , writing is copying something already written or producing something read or heard. In this kind of activity , nothing is involved except the ability to use the writing system of the language which is ,here, the association of graphic symbols with unexpected sound sequences. Such an activity is sometimes used to sensitize the students to a new phonological system and to important sound discrimination . It is made more complicated when it is involved in grammatical exercices,the construction of simple dialoges ,uncomplicated translation exercises,dictation and the cloze procedures . This type of writing ,writing practice, moves from the more guided types of exercises to more flexible production in writng where the students begin from the material provided and develop it out individually.


In its most highly developed form,writng refers to the conveying of information or expression of original ideas. This type of writing ,called expressive writing, or composition may be used for writing instructions(how-to-do paragraphs),reports (narrative paragraphs),re”sume”s(descriptive paragraphs),concrete descriptions, or essential correspondence connected with every day life(letter writing), or it may be more creative. It requires a delicate choice of vocabulary and some refinements of structure.


These distinctions made among the types of writing activities reflect the main areas of learning involved in writing process. Some of them are:


-the students must learn the graphic system :


-the students must learn the spelling rules ;


-the students must learn to control the structure ;


-the students must learn to convey the meaning through the most meaningful units of words and phrases ;


-the students must learn to express nuances in the appropriate linguistic register


To reach this stage ,the students must have a control of the mechanics of good writing.What follows is an attempt to elaborate on a dozen steps in paragraph writing which helps the students to get mastery over the technical details of the art of writing. It is hoped that the students,passing academic writing courses, and especially those who attend the ILI classes in level Eight, attain some degree of mental dextrity in paragraph writing by carefully following the steps.

۱٫ Indention ,or Indentation is an important device for showing the beginning of a paragraph. It is the beginning a line of writing or print further in from the margin than the rest of the passage.1 Usually,instead of starting at the left hand margin of the page,the first word 2 of the paragraph is started about five letter spaces from that margin ,but not more than ten .2


۲٫Margin is leaving some blank space on both sides of the page.


۳٫Capitalization Use a capital letter in the following situations:3


۱٫ Capitalize the first letter of every sentence.


۲٫ Capitalize the first letter of every word in a proper noun.( a person oa a place)


e.g. George Washington was the first president of the United States .

۱

۳٫ In the title of a book or a film, capitalize the first word and all other important words( not articles, a an, the ;short conjunctions, short prepositions)


e.g. War and Peace


For Whom the Bell Tolls


A Bell for Adano


۴٫ Capitalize the first letter of a quotation


e.g. Patrick Henry said,””Give me liberty or give me dearth!””


۵٫ Capitalize the first letter of each item in a list when the list is 1: numbered and 2:arranged vertically (like the five items in this list )


۱٫ Publication schedule


۲٫ Sales overview


۳٫Upcoming confrences


۴٫ Staff additions


۵٫Job descriptions

مقاله انگلیسی در مورد پاراگراف نویسی

دوازده گام پاراگراف نویسی به انگلیسی


۴. Punctuation helps the reader to see these units of meaning _paragraph, sentences,and words _in a written message.Punctuation is a set of graphic signs used in written language to signal certain important grammatical and attitudinal contrasts.It has three main functions:


۱٫To separate units (a hyphen separates words,a period 1 separates sentences)


۲٫ To indicate when one unit is included whitin one another (paranthesis,quotation marks, a pair of commas )


۳٫To mark a specific grammatical or attitudinal function (question mark ,exclamation mark ,apostrohe)2


Punctuation are: apostrophe,brackets,colon,comma,dash,hyphen,period ,


quotation marks,semicolon,and solidus.


APOSTROPHE(“) is a punctuation mark which signals the omission of letters or numbers ( she”ll , n”t , o”clock , the “80s ) or expresses the possessive relationship


( the boy”s car , the boys” car , a week”s holiday , Oxford colleges, government”s policy , the ship”s captain )


BRACKETS < > [ ] ( ) { } A pair of correlative punctuation marks which typically


signals an included parenthetic unit.


( ) round brackets2


[ ] square brackets4


< > angle brackets


{ } curely brackets ( brace )


The last two brackets are specialized in use.


COION ( : )is a punctuation mark whose typical function is to anticipate what follows. It expresses that what follows in the sentence is an expansion of what has preceded. Uses:


۱٫Colon is used before a list (especially if anticipated by the following, as follows)


The heart pumps blood round two circuits:the pulmanary and the systemic .


۲٫ Colon is used before a formal or long quotation .


۳٫ Colon is used before an appositive.


۴٫ Colon is used when the second clause explains the first.


There is now no way for the country to avert financial catastrophe:the government must declare a period of great austerity


COMMA ( , ) is a punctuatipon mark which has a wide range of grammatical and prosodic functions. Among its typical uses are


a. the separation of independant clausesjoined by and , or , but , yet , so , for


b. the separation of the items in a list1


c. the separation of phrases


d. the separation of dependent clauses


e. the separation of independent clauses Comma also cuts off sentence introductory elements


f. adverb or adverbial expressions Unfortunately, I cannot come now .


g. exclamation ,interjection Indeed,the work was well done .


h. direct address John, please come now .


i. prepositional phrase Because of the bad condition of the road, we decided to take a train .


j. adverbial clauses Because the road was in such bad condition that driving would be dangerous,——- .


k. participal phrase Helping to finish all the typing that had accumulated,——– .


l. infinitive phrase To finish all the typing that had accumulated ,——– .


m. absolute construction A great deal of typing having accumulated ,——– .


n. appositive phrase Anxious to finish all the typing that had accumulated ,——– .


However,commas cut off interupting elements _on both sides.


o.parenthetical phrase or clause John,some students feel , is ——–.


p. non-restrictive adjective clause John,who was wearing the medal he had won for swimming,——–.


q. non-restrictive participle phrase John,wearing the medal he had won for swimming,——–.


r. appositive phrase John,proud of the medal he had won for swimming,——– .


s. adverb or adverbial expression John,as a matter of fact, was ——– .


t. adverbial clause John ,as was his custom , was too modest to admit that he was proud of the medal he had won for swimming.


Final elements , especially if long or preceded by a pause in speech, are separated by commas,however.


u. adverb or adverbial expression No one was hurt, fortunately.


v. adverbial clause


w. participal phrase


x. infinitive phrase


y. absolute construction


z. appositive phrase


DASH ( _ ) is a punctuation mark which marks an emphatic or abrupt break. It typically signalls an included unit_such as this one_ especially in informal writing.


The uses of dash are


a. to represent a sudden shift in sentence structure The boy_he had been playing in the snow_ran into the house crying bitterly.


b. as an alternative for a colon in making a list There are three qualities in people that I hate _deceit,dishonesty,and dullness.


c. as an alternative for a semicolon between two independent clauses


d. as an alternative for a comma


with a group of items that already have commas within them


Three books_Shakespeare”s Plays, The Bible , and Walt Whitman”s Leaves of Grass _have strongly shaped the poet”s work.


HYPHEN ( – ) is a punctuation mark which indicates a division within a word.


a. at the end of a line of print,where a word will not fit without a break (exclamation)


b. to mark the parts of a complex word


۱٫ compound form mother-in-law


۲٫ prefixed form ex-husband


Due to divergence over the use of hyphen within compound words, one will find three posibilities :


solid ( flowerpot )


hyphened ( flower-pot )


open ( flower pot )


However, in formal work , consistency is important .


PERIOD ( . ) is a punctuation mark which signals the end of a sentence in statement form. It contrasts with question mark and exclamation mark.


a. If the list is written like a list_vertically,not in a sentence_a period is put after each number.


۱٫ ………..


۲٫ ………..


۳٫ ………..


b. Period is used at the end of indirect questions.


I must know what kind of car Jack has . But : Do you know what kind of car Jack has?


c. Period is used at the end of an exclamatory sentence when the resulting sentence


is a report,not an exclamation itself.


He remembered what an interesting meal that had been .


QUOTATION MARKS 1 ( “” ” ) Is a punctuation mark which signals a piece of directed speech. There are two kinds of quotation marks:


single quotation marks ( ” ” ) which are generally used in American publishing and


double quotation marks ( ” ” ) which are traditional in British publishing ,howeverthe former are increasingly the norm. When a quotation is used within a quotation ,


it is necessary to switch from one variety to the other, both agreed.


“”Who said “charming” like that “”John asked .


SEMICOLON ( ; ) Like the conjunction and semicolon is a punctuation mark which functions to coordinate clauses.


Use a semicolon :


a. to separate two independent clauses which are not joined by a conjunction


The weather was very bad;all clauses were canceled.


b. to separate elements that already contain commas


The color order was red,white,blue;blue,white,red;or white,red,blue.


SOLIDUS2 ( / ) Is an oblique stroke which is typically used to indicate


a. alternatives ( either/or) , ( -ia/sis )


b. certain kinds of abbreviations ( c/o for “care of ) ,( h/o for ” history of ” ) ,( c/o for ” complains of )


c. dating ( 6/7/78 )


d. classification (section B/36/2 )

 

۵) Correct and Grammatical (and not very long ) sentences.


To elaborate on correctness and grammaticality of sentences,it is felt essential to shed light on prescriptivism.It is the view that one variety of language has inherently higher value than others,and that this ought to be imposed on the whole of the speech community3 .The variety which is favored is that of standard written language,encountered in literature or in the formal spoken language. Those sentences which are spoken or written in this variety are said to be “correct” ; those which are not said to be “incorrect”. A clear example of such prescription rules is the recommendation to use whom and not who ,in such a question as Whom did you speak to?


A sentence is assumed to be correct when it follows the standard of language academies or publications such as grammars , dictionaries , manuals of pronunciation and style . For example the spelling form langauge and the word order Hardly he had left are regarded to be incorrect since there is no usage variation among educated users. A sentence is considered to be grammatical or ill-formed when it conforms tothe rules defined by a specific grammar of a language. A sentence may be grammaticl but it depreciates the quality of being long .Therefore,as the contemporary trend is toward simplification,writers are encouraged to use simple and short sentences.


۶٫ Good Handwriting


In asmuchas the students can write neatly and they are good at handwriting they are not needed of having it typed.However,it is of primary steps to instruct the students to write on the line and keep space for each letter to stand either above or below the line. Thereby they can improve their handwriting.


۷٫A Title for the Paragraph


It is of particular importance to first provide a definition for ana a function of a paragraph. What is a paragraph? It is defined as a group of sentences which develop one central idea1. . A paragraph is a unit of information unified by a controling idea2. . Still another definition of paragraph is a group of sentences which have a central idea3 . David Crystal has defined paragraph as a unit of written discourse between the sentence and the whole text,graphically distinguished either by indention of the first line or by white space preceding and following4 . But what is the function of the paragraph? Each paragraph should explain only one main idea which controls or limits the information that can be included in a paragraph. Its functionis to show the reader that the sentences in a particular set are more closely related to each other than to the sentences in adjacent text5. . While in all types of writing,the central idea must be developed by supporting sentences,in narrative writing , a new paragraph may be started to indicate a change of action ,place,time,or speaker 6 .


Therefore,to choose a title for each paragraph of any kind seems to be impractical.


۸٫Topic Sentence


Attempts are often made to specify a “topic” and to identify “topic sentence” for each paragraph,even though it is possible not to have a topic sentence at all. In this case, it is said that the topic sentence is implied or suggested . The topic sentencemay be found in any position in a paragraph:at the beginning ,in the middle ,or at the end. When you write ,put the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph,whenever possible,since in that position ,it provides an easy-to-understand way for the reader and easy ,simple,and effective paragraph organization for you to manage7. .


.The topic sentence is defined as “the sentence in which the controling


idea is contained”1 .That sentence is called the topic sentence because it has the idea or topic which is developed and explained in the rest of the argraph. Therefore, a topic sentence cosists of a topic and a limiting statement. Always try to make a state-ment about your topic which limits it to a certain extent2 . The words or phrases _ keywords or phrases_in the topic sentence,limiting the topic,will let the reader know how you are going to discuss the topic. Since they control the organization of the paragraph ,they are sometimes called “controling words or phrases”3 .


There are many ways to limit a topic in a topic sentence. One way way to do is possibly by referring the statements to eight categories,as follows:place(geographicallocation),time(period of time),a certain aspect similarities,differences,a number of things( a list),effect,and cause(reason). For instance make the general topic of soccer. The statements which limit the topic may follow like:


۱٫ Soccer is now played in U.S. ( geographical location)


۲٫ Soccer has become more popular within the last five years. ( time or period of time)


۳٫٫ Soccer is a physical demanding sport. (a certain aspect )


۴٫Soccer and football have a great deal in common. ( showing similarities )


۵٫ Soccer is more dangerous than tennis. (showing differences )


۶٫ A soccer player can receive various kinds of penaltiesduring a game . ( a number of things ; a list )


۷٫ The World Cup Soccer Championship Games create interest from soccer fans all over the world. (effect )


۸٫ Soccer is dangerous for several reasons. ( cause :reason )4.

۹٫ Supporting Sentences


As stated before , the topic sentence contains a controling idea which limits the subject or topic. Therefore, each paragraph must be limited to a single topic which is expressed in the topic sentence. The other sentences in the paragraph serve to develop the topic sentence. They contribute to or support the idea in the topic sentence. In other words, all these sentences must be related to the topic and must therefore refer back to the topic sentence .


paragraph


topic sentence


( major ) supporting sentence


(major) supporting sentence


(major) supporting sentence


etc.


Of course , it is possible that some sentences may be directly related to the preceding supporting sentences thereby they provide examples ,details,or furtherexplanation.

paragraph


topic sentence


major supporting sentence


minor supporting sentence


minor supporting sentence


major supporting sentence


etc .


.


Supporting sentences may be classified into major support sentences or minor support sentences . The former directly support the controling idea by making that idea more easily understood. The latter have two jobs:


۱٫ They directly support the major supporting sentence by making it more easily understood


۲٫ They indirectly support the controling idea of the paragraph by helping its major support sentence make that idea more easily understood.


۱۰٫ Unity, Coherence


A well-unified paragraph is a paragraph if it announces its main idea in the topic sentence and if all the supporting sentences contribute to the reader”s understanding of the main idea. In other words,if the paragraph fails to do this , wesay that it lacks unity1 .


Coherence is referred to as the underlying functional connectedness of a piece of language2 . Therefore, the supporting sentences and the topic sentence must be connected to each other in a way that the separation of any supporting sentence defects or ruins the coherence of the paragraph.


۱۱٫ Writing on Every Other Line


While it is not an essential element of paragraph writing, writing on every other line seems to serve as an ease in reading the paragraph.


۱۲٫ Not More Than 60 Words


There is no fixed rule for the length of a paragraph, just as there is no fixed rulefor establishing the length of sentences or even of books . The paragraph is as long as it needs to be3. .


A paragraph may vary in length. Some paragraphs are quite short; others are extremely long. Most paragraphs have more than three sentences in them and usually have between one hundred and two hundred words1 .


Here is an example of a very short paragraph cosisting of only three sentences.


Mary had a little lamb. Its fleece was white as snow. Everywhere that Mary went,the lamb was sure to go2. .

Read more: http://www.motarjemonline.com

index1

مترجم گوگل چیست؟

What is Google Translate?   

مترجم گوگل چیست؟

 

مترجم گوگل چیست؟

google translate

Google Translate is a free translation service that provides instant translations between 64 different languages. It can translate words, sentences and web pages between any combination of our supported languages. With Google Translate, we hope to make information universally accessible and useful, regardless of the language in which it’s written.

How does it work

When Google Translate generates a translation, it looks for patterns in hundreds of millions of documents to help decide on the best translation for you. By detecting patterns in documents that have already been translated by human translators, Google Translate can make intelligent guesses as to what an appropriate translation should be. This process of seeking patterns in large amounts of text is called “statistical machine translation”. Since the translations are generated by machines, not all translation will be perfect. The more human-translated documents that Google Translate can analyse in a specific language, the better the translation quality will be. This is why translation accuracy will sometimes vary across languages.

What languages does Google Translate support

Google Translate currently supports 64 languages:

  • Afrikaans
  • Albanian
  • Arabic
  • Belarusian
  • Bulgarian
  • Catalan
  • Chinese (simplified)
  • Chinese (traditional)
  • Croatian
  • Czech
  • Danish
  • Dutch
  • English
  • Estonian
  • Esperanto
  • Filipino
  • Finnish
  • French
  • Galician
  • German
  • Greek
  • Hebrew
  • Hindi
  • Hungarian
  • Icelandic
  • Indonesian
  • Irish
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Korean
  • Latvian
  • Lithuanian
  • Macedonian
  • Malay
  • Maltese
  • Norwegian
  • Persian
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Romanian
  • Russian
  • Serbian
  • Slovak
  • Slovenian
  • Spanish
  • Swahili
  • Swedish
  • Thai
  • Turkish
  • Ukrainian
  • Vietnamese
  • Welsh
  • Yiddish
  • Current alpha languages are:
  • Armenian
  • Azerbaijani
  • Basque
  • Georgian
  • Gujarati
  • Haitian Creole
  • Kannada
  • Latin
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • Urdu
  • Google Translate tests other languages, called “alpha languages”, that may have less-reliable translation quality than our supported languages. We are always working to support other languages and will introduce them as soon as the translation quality meets our standards.

What can I do to improve Translation quality

If you encounter a translation that doesn’t seem right, quite often Google Translate will have alternative results available. To view these, simply click the phrase in question. When you click a better alternative translation, Google Translate will learn from your feedback and continue to improve over time.

You can also help improve translation quality by using Translator Toolkit for translating or by uploading your translation memories into Translator Toolkit.

Want to learn more

If you still have questions about Google Translate or would like to provide feedback, please take a look at the Google Translate discussion group.

You can read more about our most recent updates on the  Google Translate  Blog and about Google’s other research projects at the Google Research website.

To learn more about the science of machine translation, take a look at these resources:

پایان